There are two commonly used types of braille, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is a direct correlation to the English alphabet and is typically learned first. Type 2, also known as contracted braille, is more commonly used because it combines some words and commonly used phrases making it faster to read. Continue reading for more information on the types of braille.
The History of Braille
Before braille, there was “night writing” that originated in the early 1800s from the French military. Rather than using lamps to read written messages in the dark, night writing was tactile and allowed them to remain hidden from the enemy.
The types of braille we know today were originally created by Louis Braille and were based closely on this military code. Louis made the initial transition to Grade 1 Braille so that each character could be felt in one motion, making reading much faster. This included the change from each cell of dots containing rows of 2 by 12 to rows of 2 by 6. In 1860, braille made its way to America following the adaptation of contracted braille where groups represented frequently used groupings of letters or entire words.
When reading , there are two main types of braille, 1 and 2, also known as non-contracted and contracted, or Grade 1 and 2 respectively. At first, these two may appear very similar given they both use a series of raised dots to represent letters and punctuation, however, they serve two different writing styles.
What is Non-Contracted Braille (Type 1)?
Type 1 is “non-contracted” which means that each cell of dots represents a single letter or punctuation mark. This is more commonly used when learning to read braille due to its large size that makes it difficult to fit full paragraphs onto a page. Each letter, number, or punctuation mark is represented by a series of raised dots.
What is Contracted Braille (Type 2)?
Grade 2, also known as Type 2 contracted, is a more condensed form of braille that is used in books, magazines, and Green Dot Signs. It uses the same systems of dots as non-contracted Braille, however, it combines some to simplify common words such as “for” or “the”.
What are the Braille Requirements for ADA Signage?
The Americans with Disabilities Act provides further information regarding the use of Grade 2 contracted braille in section 703.3 Braille. These specifications include aspects of such as the dimensions of the braille dots, their spacing, and more regarding the visual properties and location of the sign.
Required Measurements of Braille
The diameter of the base of a dot must be 1.5mm to 1.6mm
The distance between two dots in the same cell must be 2.3mm to 2.5mm
The distance between corresponding dots in adjacent cells must be 6.1mm to 7.6 mm
The height of dots must be between 0.6mm and 0.9mm
The distance between corresponding dots from one cell directly below another must be between 10mm and 10.2mm
Required Positioning of Braille on Signage
Braille should be below the corresponding text and separated by at least 9.5mm from all characters, borders, and decorations.
The Braille signage should be located at least 48 inches above the ground and at most 60 inches above the ground. These measurements are based on the lowest and highest character on the sign respectively.
Green Dot Sign® meets all of these standards ensuring your building meets all ADA signage requirements. If you are interested in learning about general ADA sign requirements we have great guide to review.
Global Standards of Braille Signage
Outside of the United States, countries such as Canada, Australia, and many more have similar regulations defining their own types of braille. The International Council on English Braille has further information on specific details such as the adoption of the “Accessible Design – Application of braille on signage, equipment and appliances” in the UK. In countries outside of the United States, it is most common to see them using Grade 2 uncontracted Braille with minor specifications varying between.
What are the Required Specifications and Measurements of Braille Signage in Australia?
Tactile characters must be raised or embossed to a height of not less than 1 mm and not more than 1.5 mm.
Sentence case (upper case for the first letter of each main word and lower case for all other letters) must be used for all tactile characters; and
upper case tactile characters must have a height of not less than 15 mm and not more than 55 mm; and
lower case tactile characters must have a height of 50% of the related upper case characters.
Tactile characters, symbols, and the like, must have rounded edges.
The entire sign, including any frame, must have all edges rounded.
The background, negative space, or fill of signs must be of matt or low sheen finish.
The characters, symbols, logos, and other features on signs must be matt or low sheen finish.
The minimum letter spacing of tactile characters on signs must be 2 mm.
The minimum word spacing of tactile characters on signs must be 10mm.
The thickness of letter strokes must be not less than 2 mm and not more than 7 mm.
All tactile text must be left-justified, except that single words may be center justified.
What are the Required Specifications and Measurements of Braille Signage in Canada?
Canada does not have any federal legislation regarding braille signage, although they do have these recommendations made by Braille Literacy Canada.
Braille dots should have a domed or rounded shape – make sure they are not pointy or flat.
The spherical radius of each dot should be 0.75-0.80mm. The base diameter of each dot should be 1.5-1.6mm.
Each dot should have a height of 0.6-0.9mm.
The horizontal and vertical distance between two dots in the same cell should be 2.3-2.5mm.
The distance between corresponding dots in adjacent cells should be 6.1-7.6mm.
Distance between corresponding dots from one cell to the cell below should be 10-10.2mm.
The standard for braille in Canada is Unified English Braille.
For braille signs of 10 words or fewer, use uncontracted braille.
For French text, use uncontracted braille.
For floor directories, use uncontracted braille.
For signs of greater than 10 words, use contracted braille only if the sign consists of sentences such as emergency evacuation instructions. Ensure contracted braille follows Unified English Braille rules.
Generally, do not use capital letters in braille signs, except for emergency instructions which comprise sentences.
If text is multi-lined, place all the braille a minimum of 9.5 mm below the entire raised print text.
For multi-lined braille text, a semi-circular braille indicator may be horizontally aligned with and placed directly before the first braille character. This indicator is not essential.
What are the Required Specifications and Measurements of Braille Signage in the UK?
The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (DDA) lists guidelines for braille signage in the United Kingdon.
Tactile characters should be between 1mm and 1.5mm thick.
Dots should have a diameter of 1.4mm and be spherical.
What are the Recommended Specifications and Measurements of Braille Signage in New Zealand?
This list encompasses the recommendations that Royal New Zealand Foundation of the Blind makes regarding braille signage.
Braille dots should have a domed or rounded shape—make sure they are not pointed or flat.
Braille dots must be raised from the surface of the sign plate. Engraved braille is impossible to read.
The spherical radius of each dot should be 0.76-0.80 mm.
The base diameter of each dot should be 1.2-1.6 mm.
Each dot should have a height of 0.4-0.9 mm.
Horizontal and vertical spacing within the same cell should be 2.29-2.54 mm.
Spacing between one dot and the corresponding dot in the adjacent cell should be 6.0-7.6 mm.
Empty space between braille cells or words should be preserved or braille will be unreadable.
Vertical spacing (from 1 cell to the cell below) should be 10-10.5 mm
What is the Importance of the Different Types of Braille?
Braille has a fascinating history and has developed to help millions of people around the world. Type 1 allows those with no understanding of how to read braille to develop basic skills. Type 2 allows people to read braille more efficiently in books and signs. It is important to fully understand your country’s regulations regarding the use of braille to make sure you or any business fully comply.